Ulcerative colitis is a chronic bowel disease. Ulcerative colitis leads to inflammation, irritation along the inner lining of the colon and rectum. Due to the inflammation, ulcers might develop on the lining of colon.
Ulcerative colitis can attack people of any age group. But it is common among the age group of 15 to 30 or above 60 years.
Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis
The symptoms of ulcerative colitis vary from patient to patient. Some of the common symptoms are listed below:
- Abdominal pain
- Rectal bleeding
- Blood in stool
- Sudden weight loss
- Joint pain and swelling
- Mouth sores
What Causes Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is caused due to the abnormal response of the immune system. The immune system is responsible for defending the body from bacteria, fungus or other invaders. The immune system of people with ulcerative colitis activates without any presence of invaders. It thinks that the cells that line colon are the intruders and attacks the lining of colon. This causes inflammation and ulcers.
Treatment for Ulcerative Colitis
The patients with Ulcerative Colitis may have ulcers in the colon and rectum. The treatment for Ulcerative colitis is based on its symptoms. The main aim of treating ulcerative colitis is to reduce the inflammation that causes chronic symptoms. The doctor conducts medical tests to determine the treatment for Ulcerative Colitis. The doctor may prescribe medication to reduce abnormal immune function, inflammation and swelling.
If the medication does not provide any results, the doctor conducts endoscopy or CT scan to identify the severity of the condition. The doctor may perform a surgery if there is a heavy blood loss and chronic symptoms. The surgery that removes colon is called Coloctomy. The surgery in which both the rectum and colon are removed is called Protocolectomy. Most of the doctors consider Protocolectomy surgery for treating Ulcerative Colitis.
Protocolectomy is performed using a laparoscopy, that has proven results. During the surgery, the entire or a small portion of colon and rectum will be removed. A small opening or stoma is created in the abdominal wall for the excretion of waste. An external is attached to the stoma for the excretion of waste. This is called permanent ileostomy. The patienst will have more bowel movements and waterry stool after the surgery.
The removal of colon and rectum with Protocolectomy procedure can cure Ulcerative Colitis.