The oesophagus is a tube-like structure that carries food to the stomach. Achalasia is a rare and serious disorder that affects the muscles of your oesophagus. In this condition, your lower oesophagal sphincter (LES), a muscular ring that doesn’t work properly and prevents contractions & relaxation of the oesophagus during swallowing. It makes tough for food to pass into your stomach. Achalasia occurs due to nerves damage of the oesophagus.
Symptoms Of Achalasia Cardia
The signs & symptoms of achalasia cardia include:
- Trouble swallowing both solid & liquid food
- A feeling of food is stuck in the oesophagus called dysphagia
- Regurgitation or backflow of food which is retained in the oesophagus
- Chest pain or discomfort
- sharp pain or discomfort after eating
- Loss of weight
Causes Of Achalasia Cardia
Achalasia cardia can occur for various reasons and sometimes the reason might be unknown. It may be a result of hereditary, or an abnormality of your immune system. In this condition, the nerves that coordinate the relaxation and opening of the sphincters get affected. Over time, the nerves in your oesophagus get degenerated because of the damaged nerves and muscles. Sometimes people get confused with the symptoms of other conditions similar to achalasia such as cancer of the oesophagus and parasitic infection called Chagas’ disease.
Treatment For Achalasia Cardia
A permanent cure for achalasia is yet to find. But the symptoms can be managed through minimally invasive therapy or surgery. Achalasia treatment aims to relax or forcibly open the LES so that the food and liquid can pass through your digestive tract more easily. However, the treatment is based on your age and the severity of the condition.
Nonsurgical Treatment For Achalasia Cardia
- Pneumatic dilation
Surgical Treatment For Achalasia Cardia
Surgery is mostly recommended for younger people when nonsurgical treatment options tend to be less effective. Fundoplication, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), laparoscopic heller myotomy are the common surgical procedures involved in treating achalasia cardia.
What Is Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy?
It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves in the opening of the tight lower oesophagal sphincter (LES) by performing a myotomy. It involves the cutting of thick muscle of the lower oesophagus and the upper part of the stomach to provide relief from dysphagia.
Further, your stomach is partially wrapped around the oesophagus to create a low-pressure valve. This procedure is called fundoplication and prevents reflux from your stomach into the oesophagus after myotomy. The chances are very minute that the patients may develop reflux even after fundoplication and they can be treated with antacid medication. This procedure provides great relief from the symptoms.